AN INSIGHT INTO CYSTIC FIBROSIS AND INFERTILITY

Cystic fibrosis affects roughly one million people in India. Cystic fibrosis is a hereditary illness that affects the lungs, pancreas, intestines, liver, and kidneys, among other organs. The condition is caused by a mutation in a gene that affects a protein that controls salt transport in cells. Bronchiectasis, Chronic Infections, Nasal Polyps, Hemoptysis, Pneumothorax, and even infertility are all possible complications of Cystic Fibrosis, especially in males.

Infertility & Cystic Fibrosis (CF)

Approximately 97% of men with cystic fibrosis have infertility. Many medical researchers have discovered, however, that these men are not sterile and can have children using assisted reproductive techniques such as IVF, ICSI, and cryopreservation. “The reason for infertility in men with Cystic Fibrosis is the congenital absence of vas deferens,” says Dr Ashish Kale, IVF Specialist in Pune. Other Cystic Fibrosis-related problems include a low sperm count, poorly shaped sperm, and poor sperm motility. Females with Cystic Fibrosis, on the other hand, have thick cervical mucus, which inhibits the ovulation process, resulting in a lack of menstruation.

Mutations in the Cystic Fibrosis Tran membrane Regulator cause Cystic Fibrosis, an autosomal recessive illness (CFTR). Because it is a genetic illness, it can be passed down from generation to generation. The condition affects people all around the world, although it is most prevalent in white people.

Understand the Signs and Symptoms

Cystic Fibrosis symptoms vary depending on the severity of the disease. The person may experience a variety of symptoms that worsen over time. The following symptoms are used by doctors to diagnose the disease:

Primary Symptoms and Signs

  • Having trouble breathing
  • Chromosomes induce lung infection (Coughing up mucus)
  • Digestive and reproductive problems
  • Sinus infection has progressed slowly.
  • Stool with a high-fat content
  • A higher-than-normal amount of salt in perspiration is a sign of pancreatitis.
  • Pneumonia That Returns

A chronic cough with mucus, dyspnea, stuffy nose, coughing, and wheezing are all symptoms of a lung infection.

Symptoms of the digestive system include foul-smelling, oily faces, severe constipation, intestinal blockage, and abdominal pain. Bone thinning or osteoporosis, electrolyte imbalance or dehydration, increased heart rate, weakness, and low blood pressure are some of the other concerns.

Treatment

Although there is no permanent cure for cystic fibrosis, early detection and prevention can help to lessen the severity of the consequences. After analyzing the symptoms of pancreatitis, nasal polyps, and other issues, you should see a specialist who will identify the problem with genetic and sweat testing for cystic fibrosis.

A blood test is used to evaluate the level of Immunoreactive Trypsinogen, or IRT secreted by the pancreas in infants during the screening procedure. Sweat Chloride Test, IRT Test, Sputum Test, Chest X-Ray, CT scan, and Pulmonary Function Tests (PFTs) are some of the most common tests used to detect cystic fibrosis.

Medications: Multivitamins, mucolytic, and pancreatic enzyme supplements are used to treat and prevent lung infection and pancreas problems, anti-inflammatory medications to reduce lung swelling, mucus–thinning drugs, and inhalers to relax the muscles around the bronchial tubes are all used to treat Cystic Fibrosis.

Chest Physical Therapy: This therapy is essential for relieving chest congestion and removing all mucus. It is repeated 4-5 times every day. Physical treatment for the chest includes exercises as well. Make sure, however, that you follow your doctor’s advice.

Nutritional advice, physical activities, and breathing strategies are discussed with patients during pulmonary rehabilitation. The primary goal is to promote pulmonary health.

Surgical Procedures: Depending on the patient’s issue, procedures such as nasal polypectomy, endoscopy, oxygen therapy, and even lung transplant are performed.

Assisted Reproductive Techniques: IVF, Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI), and Cryopreservation are the best treatments to treat infertility in men and women with CF. “It is difficult for the sperm to enter successfully to result in conception in women suffering from cystic fibrosis due to thick mucus,” Dr Ashish Kale said. We fully eliminate this process by using a testicular collection of sperm.

Vest Therapy: This therapy makes use of mechanical devices. Cystic fibrosis is treated using devices such as a breathing mask, a vibrating vest, and a tube.

Lung Transplantation: Lung transplantation is the sole choice for people who have significant respiratory problems and complications.

At-Home Care

  • The necessity of post-treatment care cannot be overstated.
  • A diet high in antacids, multivitamins, fibre and salt is essential.
  • Regular exercise will aid in the removal of mucus from the airways. Walking and swimming are the best physical exercises.
  • Get your pneumonia and influenza immunizations as soon as possible.
  • Drink a lot of water.

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