Investigations of Male Infertility

Often, the Infertile male is perfectly healthy but produces poor-quality sperm for unknown reasons. However, some men suffer from major medical issues, such as a lack of testosterone, the male sex hormone. As a result, males in infertile partnerships must contact an IVF specialist. Prior infertility, genital surgery or infections, undescended testes, and certain systemic disorders are all factors to consider.

The most significant test is sperm analysis, which necessitates a high skill level to meet the World Health Organization’s stringent requirements.

A sperm count of more than 20 million/ml is considered normal, while the population average is over 60 million, and some men have sperm counts of more than 200 million/ml. Sperm counts of five to twenty million may not always indicate a serious reproductive problem. Motility refers to the sperm’s capacity to swim. Normally, more than 40% of sperm show some degree of motility. Fertility can be severely lowered if motility difficulties are severe. The shape of sperm, known as morphology, is a significant determinant of fertility, and assessing it accurately takes a lot of skill.

Antibodies against sperm limit sperm motility and capacity to adhere to the egg, which is a major cause of infertility. They are an important initial test performed in our laboratory since they can be easily spotted on fresh sperm at the time of semen analysis. The sperm mucus interaction test, which analyses sperm’s capacity to swim through mucus, is another suggestive test.

Tests for hormones in the blood are also carried out. Testicular dysfunction can lower testosterone levels, reducing sex drive and energy levels. The FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone) test can tell you how much sperm you’re producing. FSH levels are normal in healthy men and those who have a sperm blockage. When the testicle is severely injured and few or no sperm are generated, the FSH level gradually rises. If a significant male factor is suspected, this is a standard blood test that should be done regularly.

A low sperm count might be caused by an obstruction in the tubes or sperm production failure. A testicular biopsy, performed under local anaesthesia with a small needle and microscopic examination by our embryologist, can quickly determine whether sperm are present in the testis.

Finally, a full evaluation requires a thorough clinical examination of the men as well as the administration of a variety of specialized hormone and sperm testing.

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